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Цаг: 0:00Нийт үргэлжлэх хугацаа:18:28

АНУ-ын түүхийн хураангуй 1: Жэймстаун иргэний дайнд орсон нь (англи)

Video transcript

what I thought I would attempt to do in this in the next few videos is just to give a scaffold of American history I'm clearly going to glaze over a lot of the details but hopefully it'll give you a sense of how everything at least fits together at least the major events in American history so you can kind of and when I say American history I'm talking about the United States history and so the first real successful settlement in what's now the United States was at Jamestown and that's Jamestown Virginia right over here and it was 1607 it was set up as kind of a commercial settlement and then shortly after that and we always learned this in in school you know the pilgrims on the Mayflower sailing the oceans blue and all the rest they were kind of the next major settlement in the new world I guess we should say the next major successful English settlement there are obviously the Spanish and the Portuguese were already settling the the new world with with with a good bit of success at this point but we're talking about the English settlements and so the pilgrims settled Plymouth what's now Plymouth the Massachusetts in 1620 and at obviously from 1620 until the mid 1700s you just had a huge influx of people migrating and cities developing but I'm going to fast-forward all the way to the mid 1700s so this is actually a huge amount of time that I'm I'm just not providing any details over because I'm really just quite focused on the major events in American history and so this is a hundred thirty year period where things were just getting built out more they were getting more developed and I'm gonna fast-forward to 1754 because at this period you had essentially the entire East Coast of what's now the u.s. these were the thirteen colonies of the United not the United States yet there's a thirteen British colonies but these are English settlements and then if you go a little bit to the northwest from there you have all of the French settlements and obviously still in these parts of you know in Quebec in Canada people speak French but you had the French settlements up in this area up in this area over here and I'm not going to go to the details each of these can be a whole series of videos and hopefully in the future I will make them whole series of videos but you fast-forward to 1754 and you start having the French and the start getting into squabbles on over territory where Pittsburgh Pennsylvania is right now in 1754 and that starts the French and Indian War and I want to be very clear here because this is one of maybe one of the biggest points of confusion when people first learn American history since it's called a French and Indian War they think it's between the French and the Indians but it's not it was the French and the Indians against against the British against the British and the colonists so in this war the British and the colonists were on the same side against the French and the Indians and obviously there were some Indians that were also on the side of the British but but it's called the French and Indian War because these were the people that the British were fighting against now if anyone outside of the the United States talks about the French in any war they will not call it the French in any war they'll really just call that the American theater of the Seven Years War because it eventually evolves into a much bigger conflict between Great Britain and France that's going on in Europe and the French and Indian War was really just the American theater of it so between between seven the French and Indian War starts in 1754 based on these disputes over Pittsburgh but that wasn't the only thing you had all of these other things that all of these other tensions that we're developing the the thing that starts the war is never the only factor there's all it's always just the tipping point but that leads to a bigger a bigger war in Europe and that's the Seven Years War that starts in 1756 and ends they both end because they're really the same war they're really the same war they both end in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris Treaty of Paris 1763 and the big takeaway of that is that really most of what France had in the new world now becomes a now becomes essentially a part of the British Empire now becomes British colonies or British territories and even Louisiana goes over to Spain at this point and we'll see it goes back to France for a little bit in 1800 and then it goes back to the United States in 1803 but we'll see that in a second so 1763 the British it was this huge costly war but they were able to win and at least from the point of view of the British they felt that this was the main beneficiaries of this war were the Americans they were able to get all of this new territory all of this new area that they can now trade with or they can now potentially settle and so the British decide to start taxing the Americans for at least some portion to recoup some portion of the cost of the war so they passed in 1765 they passed the Stamp Act and this wasn't it this wasn't a tax on stamps what this was is that they essentially declared that a whole set of paper that had to be used in the new world so stuff for legal documents stuff that maybe even newspaper that that paper will have to be produced in in Great Britain and it had to have a special stamp on it in order for the the contracts or whatever was on top of it in order for them to be legitimate so it essentially was a huge tax on paper and on documents and essentially this is what kind of societies ran on so it was just a way to extract money from the colonists in order to I guess help pay back some of the the cost that that the the Empire felt that they had incurred on behalf of the colonists you could debate whether who was the main beneficiary but but regardless you could imagine this this didn't make this whole period over here the colonists weren't happy especially because they didn't have any representation in Parliament this was done without anybody from from from the colonies saying hey wait I don't think that's fair this is fair or whatever and so you fast-forward 1773 you have the Boston Tea Party where you have a bunch of people who for whatever reason and there's there's multiple interests here but there was three ships in Boston Harbor full of tea and and owned by the the tea was owned by the East India tea company and they decide in protest and there was a hold there was a whole series of Acts and and other taxes that went back and forth but once again we're not gonna go into the details here but in in a revolt they dumped the tea they dressed up as Indians as American Indians and they dumped the tea into Boston Harbor and then you can imagine well what you know that was kind of a very exciting act for the colonists but it was a very it didn't make the British very happy and then after that they passed the coercive acts they essentially did a blockade of Boston so things started to get really really really tense in the early 1770s and then you fast forward to 1775 you have essentially the first conflicts of the American Revolutionary War and we're gonna do a whole series of videos on really the whole Revolutionary War 1776 you have the the Declaration of Independence this is them right here drafting the Declaration of Independence and that's really just saying hey you know we've had enough of you we've had enough of you Great Britain we are now declaring ourselves as an independent country no more of this no more of this colonies business and so all the way until 1783 you have the American Revolutionary War and once again you can do a lot of videos on this but I'm just going to go over it just so you have a sense of when everything happened and when everything ended and we can later dig deeper into the scaffold and it ends with the Treaty of Paris the u.s. becomes a free a free independent state and then you fast forward until this point we are the u.s. is being governed by Congress and the Articles of Confederation but the Constitution that we have now it was drafted in 1787 it was ratified it had to get at least nine of the states to ratify it that happened in 1788 and then it went into effect in 1789 so it depends what you consider the birth of the country is well it was definitely be the Declaration of Independence but the country in its current form with its current institutions with this current Constitution started in 1789 and that was also the beginning of Washington's first of two terms as president and those ended in 1780 1797 and then John Adams comes into the picture and the reason why I put this I won't obviously this is actually the only president that I showed is that it was actually very important that he decided to step down after two terms he was hugely popular if he wanted to he probably could have become one of these characters that stick around maybe a little bit longer than some people would want so it was really good that he set this example of stepping down after two terms and then he wasn't this kind of power-hungry dude you fast forward a little bit more 18:03 I mentioned that after the after the French and Indian War what's Louisiana I want to be clear when I say Louisiana Louisiana isn't just what's the current state of Louisiana it's this whole region that includes the state of Louisiana but all the way up to roughly what are the the United States is current border with Canada and after the French and Indian War all of this business over here went to Spain and then in 1800 it went back to France but then in 1803 Napoleon had a bunch of stuff that he had to wear his naval fleet was destroyed he had a he had suffered some defeats in in in in the in the West Indies I guess we could call it in particular and and hate in in in Haiti and he said well you know I probably won't be able to control this territory anyway so he sold it to the United States for what turned out to be a very very very cheap price but it was kind of like you know it's not like you could have protected it anyway the United States might have been able to take it from him without him being able to do anything so he might as well get some money for it so that he could fund his battles in Europe so in 1803 the United States almost doubled in size it went from it went from these territories that it had after the American after the American Revolution for independence and now it got all of this region over here in 1803 then you fast forward a bit you fast forward a bit and the war of 1812 it's an interesting one because there weren't any really serious outcomes from it but what was interesting about it this whole this whole time period even after independence the British continued to harass America they continued to arm Native Americans who would who would cause kind of you know who would maybe revolt or cause trouble for settlers they would impress American seamen when I say impress it didn't mean that they were like you know doing something special it meant that they were the impressment of seamen meant that they were kind of taking over these boats taking the sailors and forcing them to become part of the British military so they were doing a whole series of things that was really kind of antagonizing United States in 1812 United States declares war on Great Britain you have the war of 1812 it ends in 1815 with the Battle of New Orleans Battle of New Orleans but there wasn't any real transfer of a territory or anything like that over here what was good some people call it the second war for American independence is it really asserted that kind of America's that that America was here to stay or that I should say that the United States was here to say that the that the revolution wasn't just some fluke that isn't some just fly-by-night country it was able to defeat one of the greatest empires in the world again so it was kind of here to stay now you fast forward a little bit more the this part of of what we would call Texas this area right over here it was before 1836 it was part of Mexico but the Mexicans actually encouraged actually encouraged of english-speaking settlers these would be American english-speaking settlers into the air just because it was very sparsely settled but these these these english-speaking settlers a lot of them were slave owners and then as we kind of go up to 1836 the state of Mexico that this was all kind of governed by they were thinking about abolishing slavery so you could imagine that the settlers there they didn't like this idea so in 1836 you had the war for Texas Independence and they were you know and that's where you remember you remember the Alamo and all of that and then the first president of Texas is Sam Houston that's why Houston is named Houston and then you fast forward all the way to 1845 and in this time period you have this whole talk in the United States of manifest destiny that you know it's it's it's part of our god-given destiny as Americans to one day extend our territory all the way to the all the way to the Pacific Ocean so people were already eyeing a lot of the territory remember all of this territory this was this is this was Texas and Mexico still viewed it as their territory even though it was being governed independently by the people who call themselves a republic of Texas it hit all of this territory that was Mexican territory so people were starting to I this is hey wouldn't it be nice to get a little bit of that so in 1845 and this was in agreement with the settlers in Texas with Republic of Texas you know at the United States annex Texas the settlers there wanted this to happen so it wasn't a forced annexation of Texas but Mexico was not so happy about this because Mexico still viewed still viewed Texas as part of their territory and America to some degree depends on how you view it it seems like they kind of wanted to goad Mexico into war so they sent military really close to the border of Mexico even into some territory where you know Mexico might have had better claims to it or you know I'm not gonna take sides on this but it seemed like there was some instigation going on and there's some debate about the actual course of events but in 1846 you have war actually breaking out between Mexico and the United States and by 1848 the United States essentially trounces Mexico and most of the war actually does go on on Mexican land on Mexican land and because of that because of that Mexico seeds over all of this area so California and all of the rest of you know Nevada Arizona what part of New Mexico that didn't come along with the United States didn't already have and along that most that same amount of time you both had the British and the Americans that were that were eyeing this territory the Oregon Territory up here and I didn't even cluded part of Canada and eventually they were able to resolve it relatively peacefully and what they agreed is is that the Americans would get all over this territory and that the British would get everything north of this line right over here and that's why Vancouver and British Columbia and all of that is it's Canada now it stayed as part of the British Empire for a little bit longer so by 1848 the manifest destiny essentially had happened we the United States had gotten everything from California all the way from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast and then you know and clearly I'm really just covering the the high levels just 30,000 level a foot view of American history here this whole time you had this tension developing you know from the birth of the country through through the election of Abraham Lincoln you have this tension over slavery a lot of people in the north didn't like it on moral grounds a lot of people in the south that didn't like it well they wanted slavery regardless of their their what they thought of it morally the the South's economy to a large degree was based on on slavery and so all of this you know the tipping point kind of happened in 1860 where Abraham Lincoln who was who was pretty vocal about his about the fact that he did not like slavery that he did he didn't he wanted to curb the spread of slave states and you know up to this point he had all of these compromises every time a state came into the Union the slave states wanted to be another slave state the free states wanted to be another free state so you always had this people kind of jockeying for for for whoever could have the most states in on their side of the camp but all of this kind of a pro-slavery and anti-slavery that hit a tipping point in 1860 when Abraham Lincoln who was fairly vocal about not extending slavery he was elected then a bunch of what are now you know we couldn't now consider southern states seceded from the Union and then in 1861 in in South Carolina you know South Carolina said hey we are not part of the United States anymore but there were still a United States military garrison there so they attacked it that started the civil war and so during the Civil War it lasts until 1865 Abraham Lincoln makes the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 which essentially proclaims all the slaves should be free this lays the groundwork for the 13th amendment to the Constitution and then unfortunately he dies two months before the end of the Civil War but in 1865 the South surrenders and so they're not able to secede and for essentially we no longer have slavery in the United States so I'm gonna leave and and you know it's it's fascinating and just to give you a sense of things here's the map the the navy blue are the Union states the northern states the light blue are the territory controlled by the northern states this orange color are the are the states that seceded from the Union the Confederacy and this light orange these are kind of territories that they controlled but they were disputed and these yellow these yellow states right here were were members of the Union they didn't secede from the union they didn't join the Confederacy but they were slaves but probably the most fascinating thing about the America the Civil War other than the fact that it it ended slavery in the United States so that was probably its the biggest thing but it was also the bloodiest war that ever happened in United in the United States history during the Civil War during the Civil War these are unbelievable numbers 18% of white males in the south white males in the South in south died 18 percent almost one out of every five white males in the South died during the Civil War and for the North it was slightly better was six percent but still a huge percentage of of the men in these Indian in the United States died fighting the Civil War